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Author Topic: MODEL QUESTIONS (Ecosystem)@ Socity and Environment  (Read 4869 times)

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October 05, 2009, 06:24:30 AM
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(Essay/Long type)

Q.1   What are the six classes of the components of the ecosystem?  Describe in brief.

Ans :   
a)  components of eco-system

There are two components (parts) of an eco-system.

1.   Biotic : .They are living orgnisms. They are distinguished on the basis of their nutritional relationships.
The organisms living, on the land masses are different fron those in sea-water. Climate condition bring about variations in the types of plants and animals found in different land masses.
2.   Abiotic :  They  are non-biological of eco-Svstem. They influence the living organism in the area.
 They  are also called non-living components of the eco-system. Examples are chemical substances found in the soil, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide and minerals like phosphates, nitrates or organic materials like carbohydrates, fats, proteins and vitamins. Other abiotic elements of the climate are temperature, rain fall, duration of sunlight, winds ,nature of soil, slope of the land, composition of the bodies, etc.
 The six classes of an eco-system are as follows :

1)   Primary consumers. Herbivores  feeding on plants. Example : Rabit etc.
2)   Secondary consumers : carnivores feeding on animals.  Examples : Lion
3)    Tertiary consumers : Omnivores feeding both plants and animals. Example ; man
4)    Consumers of decomposed tissues of plants. . Decomposers, Example: bacteria and fungi.
5)   Nutrients in soil and water.
6)   Energy from sun and from photosynthesis.

Q.2   Describe the ecosystem with reference to a pond as an example.


Ans :   A pond is a good example of a small, fresh - water, aquatic ecosystem, which is self-sufficient and self-regulating. In fact, one of the best ways to start the study of ecology is to study a small pond, where all the basic components of an ecosystem can be conveniently examined.
Abiotic Components : The Abiotic components of a pond ecosystem consist of the physical and chemical parameters of pond water such as colour, odour, taste, turbidity, electrical conductivity, temperature, pH (hydrogen ion concentration), suspended solids, dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, chemical
oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, chloride, etc., and certain minerals like sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, nickel, cobalt, lead,
mercury and arsenic. Water samples can be collected from the pond and ail the above-mentioned physico-chemical parameters can be determined in a well-equipped laboratory.
Biotic Components : In a pond, the auto-trophic (self-nourishing) green plants and some species of photosynthetic bacteria are the producers. The green plants are mainly the macrophytes and phytoplanktons present in the pond water. The macrophytes are the rooted larger plants, which may be partly or completely submerged, emergent or free-floating. The phytoplanktons, on the other hand, are extremely small, floating or suspended lower plants. Diatoms form a major part of phytoplakton ok. Other types of phytoPlanktons are the green algae such as oscillatoria, volvox, spirogyra, etc.
In a pond, the majority of consumers are the herbivores. There are also a few insects and fishes which are carnivores. They depend on herbivores for their food. The primary consumers are either benthos or zooplarlktons (microscopic anirnals). Benthos are the organisms present at the bottom of the pond, but some are associated with the living plants. The common examples of benthos are fishes, beetles or insect larvae. Zooplanktons are mainly rotifers, protozoans and crustaceans. They feed on phytoplanktons. Some fishes, insects and frogs come under the category of secondary consumers. They feed on zooplanktons or on small fishes. The large fishes that eat small fishes and water snakes that feed on fishes come under the category of tertiary consumers.
In a pond, there are some microorganisms that decompose the dead and decaying bodies of both consumers and producers. They are known as decomposers. Some bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes belong to this category of the biotic components of a pond. Their main function is to bring about the decomposition of dead and decaying organisms of the pond ecosystern. Thus, within the small area of a pond, all the important feature  of an ecosystern can be observed.




Q.3   Write a critical note on the principles of ecobalance.


Ans :    By its very nature, ecology is a rnultidisciplinary science. It involves plant and animal biology, taxonomy, physiology, genetics, behavioral science, meteorology, pedology, geology, sociology, anthropology, physics, chemistry, mathematics and electronics. Often, it is very difficult to draw a sharp line between ecology and any of the above disciplines since all impinge on it. Exactly the same situation exists also within ecology, In order to understand the interactions between the organism and the environment, or between organisms, it is often difficult to separate behavior from physiology, adaptation from evolution and genetics, or animal ecology from plant ecology.
Historically, ecology developed along two lines, viz., the study of plants (plant ecology) and the study of animals (animal ecology). Plant ecology focuses on the relationship of plants to other plants and their environment. The approach of plant ecology is largely descriptive of the vegetational and floristic composition of an area and usually ignores the influence of animals on the plants. Animal ecology, deals with the study of population dynamics, population distribution, animal behavior and the relationships of animals and their environment. Because animals depend upon plants for food and shelter, animal ecology cannot be fully understood without a considerable background of  plant ecology. This is particularly true in the areas of applied ecology like wildlife management.
Both plant and animal ecology may be approached as the study of the interrelations of an individual organism with its environment (autecology), or as the study of groups of organisms (synecology). In many ways, autecology is the classical study of ecology, which is experimental and inductive. Because autecology is usually concerned with the relationship of an organism to one or more variables like humidity, light, salinity or nutrient levels, it is easily quantified and lends itself to experimental design both in the laboratory and in the field. Autocology has, therefore, borrowed experimental techniques from physics, chemistry and physiology.
Synecology, is philosophical and deductive in nature. It is largely descriptive and not easily quantified. Some of the important concepts developed by synecology are those concerned with nutrient cycles, energy budgets and ecosystern developments. Synecology has strong ties with geology, meteorology and cultural anthropology. Synecology may be subdivided according to environmental types, e.g., terrestrial oraquatic ecology. Terrestrial ecology maybe further subdivided into forest, grassland, desert and arctic ecology. It concerns with such aspects of terrestrial ecosysterms as microclimate, soil chemistry, soil fauna, hydrologic cycles, ecogenetics and productivity. Terrestrial ecosystems are more influenced by organism and arc subject to much wider environmental fluctuations than aquatic ecosystems. Because the physical environment is so important in controlling the aquatic ecosystern, considerable attention is paid to the chemical and physical characteristics of the ecosystem, such as the current and the chemical composition of the water. By convention, aquatic ecology (known as limnology) is limited to stream ecology and lake ecology. Stream ecology concerns life inflowing waters, while lake ecology deals with life in relatively still water. Marine ecology, on the other hand, concerns life in open seas and estuaries.
Other ecological approaches concern specialized areas. The study of the geographic distribution of plants and animals is known as ecological plant and animal geography. The study of population growth and mortality, is known as population ecology. The study of the genetics and ecology of local races and distinct species is called ecological genetics. The study of the behavioral responses of animals to their environment is known as behavioral ecology. Investigations of the interactions between the physical environment and the organism belong to ecoclimatology and physiological ecology. The study of the groups of organisms is known as community ecology. The part of ecology concerned with the analysis and understanding of the structure and function ofecosystems by using applied mathematics, mathematical models and computer programs is known as systems ecology. Applied ecology, on the other hand, is concerned with the applications of ecological principles to the management of natural resources, agricultural production and problems of environmental pollution.

Q.4   Write a short note on biosphere cycles.


Ans:   The bio-sphere cycle may be defined as “the flow of various elements of the biosphere from environment to the organisms i.e., plants and elements and vice-versa.” In soil 90% of the nitrogen is organic obtained from decay of dead plants (biomass), animals and plants residue, faeces and urine of animals etc. It is hydrolyzed ammonium ion (NH4+)which is oxidized to no33. The bio-sphere cycle are broadly of three types as mentioned below :

1. Hydrological cycle    2. Gaseous cycle    3. Sedimentary cycle



Q.4.1   What do you mean by 'Biosphere Cycle' ?


Ans :   Biosphere means sphere of life. The idea of Biosphere was suggested by Austrian geologist Edward Suess nearly a century ago. At that time it was not a so important concept. Today, however, the biosphere has become the most important problem faced by man. The basic function of biosphere is that it supports life. It is estimated that biosphere contains more than three hundred and fifty thousand species of plants and eleven million animal species including man. The biosphere supplies the essential requirements for Society and Environment all those species such as plants, animal and human beings namely light, heat, water, food and living space etc.
Biosphere cycle : Maintenance of the biosphere is possible through constant recycling of materials between the biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) components .These cycles are as given below;
(i) Hydrological cycle : The path of water through environment is hydrological cycle
(ii) Carbon Cycle: Carbon serves two purposes in the environment ( I ) It is structural component of organic molecules and (2) the energy holding chemicals bonds it forms for energy storage.                                
(iii) Nitrogen cycle: Organisms cannot exist without amino acids, peptides, nucleic acids and proteins all of which are organic molecules containing nitrogen.
(iv) The Phosphorus cycle : Minerals become available to organisms after they are released fro rocks. Phosphorus cycle is one of the mineral cycle begins when phosphorus compounds are leached from rocks and minerals over long periods of time.                                                  I
(v) The Sulphur Cycle.-. Sulphur plays a vital role in organisms, especially as a minor but essential component of proteins. Sulphur compounds are in portant determinants of the acidity of rainfall, surface water and soil.
(vi) Oxygen Cycle: Oxygen is the main source of respiratory gas for all terrestrial organisms.




Q.5   Explain in brief the carbon dioxide cycle.


Ans :     Carbon is essential to life, carbon is the basic building block of the carbo-hydrates. Fats, proteins, DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleric Acid) and other organic compounds necessary for life.
The carbon-cycle is based on carbon-dioxide gas, which makes up0.036% of the volume of the troposphere and is also dissolved in water. Carbon dioxide is a basic components of nature’s thermostat. If carbon cycle removes too much CO2 from the atmosphere, the atmosphere will cool : if the cycle generates too much, the atmosphere, the atmosphere will get warmer . Thus, even slight changes in the carbon cycle can affect climate and ultimately the types of life that can exist in various parts of the planet.
Terrestrial producers  remove CO2  from the atmosphere and aquatic producers remove it from the water. Then they use photosynthesis to convert, CO2 into complex  carbohydrates such as glucose.
The cells in oxygen producers, consumers and decomposers then carry pit aerobic respiration. This breaks down glucose and other complex organic compounds and converts the carbon back to CO2 in the atmosphere or water for reuse by producers. This connection between photosynthesis in producers and aerobic respiration in producers, consumers, and decomposers circulates carbon in the biosphere and is a major part of the global carbon cycle. So the process of photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition and combustion (burning) or fossil fuels mainly maintains carbon cycle.

Q.6   Explain in brief the main causes of eco-imbalance .


Ans :   Causes of Eco-Imbalance : The Reasons which cause ecological imbalance are given below.  : If beyond 30% of forest land area is resprted to tree-felling then eco-balance is disturbed about 95% of the land in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world are in the process of desertification.
Delineation means changing land into desert area.
1. Deforestation brings about erosion and soil movement. A large number to trees along the roadsides are falling down due to road construction. Improper road construction results in soil erosion that may lead to uprooting of large trees and degeneration of lower counts. This way it leads to serious ecological imbalances affecting adversely run-off factors, temperature gradient, and surface radiation.
2. Aerobic process accumulation enhancing need of BOD, COD and DO emanating from sewage and other wastes.
3. Industrial effluents and Agricultural discharges,
4. Automobiles. More than 40 lakhs surface transport moves on the roads of Delhi only.
5. lndustrial chimney. Thermal Power Stations, emission of flyash and dust from stone crushers.
6. Population and Gulf-war : A brief review of Gulf-war is  described in a tabulated shape.



Q.7   What are the adverse effects due to eco-imbalance ?


Ans :   Some important polluted environment and imbalanced ecosystems are as follows :
(1)   Ill effect on human health.
(2)   Soil degradation.
(3)   Desetification.
(4)   Contamination of food .
(5)   Trace substances in the troposphere.
(6)   Genetic resource depletion
(7)   Depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer
(8)   Global warming.

   
Q.8   List and explain the pragmatic remedies to prevent eco-imbalance.


Ans:     Remediesfor Eco-Imbalance: Some important strategies (programme and plans) for reducing the ecological imbalance in the world eco-system are given below:
(I) Road construction activities must be minimum on reserve forests in order to avoid and disturbance to natural wealth. It is better to consult an environmentalist prior to road construction.
(II) In order to avoid any geological havoc, blasting and chipping mountain slopes must be done under the instructions of geological investigators.
(III) Wood burning as a source of energy is very popular in those area where oil, gas and coal prices are very high. Besides this wood burning bring forth hazardous amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC due to inefficient and incomplete burning of wood. EPA (Environmental Pro tection Agency) recommend use of Wood Stoves nation wide (hilly areas and plains) to over-power eco-imbalance as a remedial measure and attempt deal burning.
(IV) Biogas is another way, the use of which can help in maintaining eco-balance. It is a source of renewable energy. I.I.T., New Delhi has develops technology of briquetting saw dust into smokeless fuel— a good and eco-friendly source of energy which yields Biogas and pynogas. Biogas is mainly produced from cattle dung, human excreta, straw, plant, leaves, paddy husk sludge, food industries and paper mills, Its use is good remedy for eco-imbalance besides being cheaper.
(V) Programme of social forestry must be taken upto the grass root level. The wastelands must be garlanded with trees, and valuable herbs and shrubs. The best example of social forestry is found in China where even single inch of wasteland is not left without plantation. Debris obtained during road cut-tings must be accumulated at some appropriate place and plantation must be done on the same.This plantation will help in retaining the natural environment.
Plantation must be done along the banks of rivers, nallaha etc. in order to avoid any further cutting of soil and to protect the water reservoir and dams from more siltation, Small water tanks along with the proper drainage system must be constructed along the roadsides in order to protect both flora and fauna.


(Objective/Short Type)


Q.9   Give a suitable definition of ecology.
Ans :    A.Mac fadyen : “Ecology is a science which concerns itself with the inter-relationships of living organisms, plants and animals and their environments’
   S.C.Kendeigh : “ Ecology is the study of animals and plants in their relation to each other and to their environment.”

Q.10   what is food chain?
Ans :   Ecosystems function by maintaining a flow of energy and a cycling of nutrients through a series of steps of eating and being eaten, of utilization and conversion, which is known as food chain.

Q.11   what are the decomposers?
Ans:    Microconsumers or decomposers  small heterotrophs, mainly the bacteria and fungi, which decompose the dead remains of plants and animals, utilize a part of the products of this decomposition for their own nourishment and, in the process, release simple substances which can be reutilized as nutrients by the producers.

Q.12   Define detritus
Ans:   
Q.13    The abiotic components of the ecosystem are:
(a) Organic compounds               (b)  Microconsumers
(c)  Inorganic substances            (d)  None of these.

Q.14    Macronutrients are:
(a) Oxygen               (b) Sulphur
(c) Chlorine              (d) Sodium

Q.15    Match the following:
(A) Ecology                    (a) MicTobes
(B)  Biotic                       (b) Microclimate
(C) Synecology               (c) Water
(D) Abiotic                     (d) Meteorology

Q.16    Match the following:
(A) Biosphere cycle       (a) Calcium carbonate
(B) Chlorophylis                   (b) Magnesium
(c)  Sedimentary cycle            (c)  Biogeochemical cycle
    (D) Oysters                             (d) Sulphur cycle



Q.17    Write true or false:                      
Ans:    An ecosystem may be a single tree. – True


Q.18    Write true or false:   The chemosynthetic bacteria obtain energy from the sun. -  False
Ans:   The chemosynthetic bacteria obtain energy directly from chemical reaction

Q.19   Write true or false:                      
Fungi, bacteria and animals can be called autotrophs.
Ans:   Fungi, bacteria and animal can be called heterotropns.

Q.20    Name the odd ones:

(a)  Carbon dioxide cycle              (b)  Sulphur cycle
(c)  Oxygen cycle                        (d)  Nitrogen cycle



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« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »


 

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