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Author Topic: ENVIRONMENT [email protected] and Environment  (Read 3968 times)

October 05, 2009, 01:25:53 PM
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(Essay/Long type)

1.1    Explain in brief the causes for environmental degradation in the Third World countries.

Ans :     
India today is one of the First ten industrialized countries of the world. What these industries have      
provided and what has come out is noteworthy. There is no sustainable development. We have both non-degradable and bio-degradable pollutants. Pollutant emission within the permissible limit is a fine approach of development but the moment permissible limit is crossed may be due to anyone's carelessness it becomes hazardous to the health of both living and non-living organisms. Air, water, soil and noise pollution is being experienced by society. This is not sustainable development We all know that pollutants are present in water, air, soil and sound. Their dimension, source and reduction procedures upto tolerable limits is discussed below one by one.

1.2   What is "organic growth"? Give some examples of unplanned growths.

we had unbounded faith in science and technology and the miracles they would" work to eradicate poverty, disease and other ills of the society. Since independence, India has made tremendous progress on all fronts. India has also achieved near self-reliance in many core sectors such as iron and steel, crude oil refining and petrochemicals, drugs and pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, engineering goods, food and food processing, building materials and consumer goods. Unfortunately, this industrial transformation of the country was not well-planned from the point of view of environmental conservation and this improperly planned development has resulted in
pollution of our air, water and land. The main factor of environmental pollution in the Indian sub-continent (i.e., in India, Pakistan, Bangaladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and Sri Lanka) appears to be over-population that
throws heavy demands on natural resources including air, water, soil, flora and fauna resulting in a serious imbalance in the ecosystem.
An extreme example of this was the Bhopal Gas Tragedy. In January, 1984, an insecticide plant of Union Carbide leaked a toxic gas, methyl isocyanate, 4 that killed more than 2,000 people within hours and blinded or otherwise sickened thousands. Most of the victims of this biggest industrial accident in the world were the poor people living in the slums adjacent to the plant.
According to many authorities, the main problem concerning environmental degradation is not "growth" but "unplanned growth". These authorities have formulated a new concept known as “organic growth". As an answer to the problem of environmental degradation. According to the principal of organic growth, the only answer to this universal problem is that governments should make universal decisions above their short-term and narrow national interests. Rich countries should transfer more of their resources to poor nations, and each country should specialize in what it is best equipped to produce.
Development  in harmony with the environment should be the spirit of our Five-Year Plans. If we build a large dam, for example, hundreds of thousands of trees are felled, thousands of acres of fertile land is lost, and thousands of poor people are displaced. This is the dilemma of development No one can deny the need for development; but every effort should be made to minimize its environmental cost. While planning for any developmental project, there should be specific provisions for environmental protection. Attempts should also be made to remove some of the weaknesses existing in the planning system, which include the lack of co-ordinated institutional support, gaps in the necessary information and data required for the assessment of environmental impact of various developmental projects, inadequate availability of trained manpower and lack of strong public interest in environment issues.

1.3   Write a critical note on "Environmental Degradation by the Rich".

The food requirements and habit of the rich Western countries have been instrumental in destroying the forests and degrading the land of many poor Third World countries. Despite the worldwide process of decolonization after the Second World War, it is almost certain that much more land is being used today in the developing countries to meet the food requirements of the Western countries than in the years before the Second World War. More than one-fourth of all the Central American forests have been cleared since 1960 for the purpose of cattle ranching and about 90% of the beef produced in these ranches are being exported to the USA, while the domestic consumption of beef in Central America has fallen dramatically during this period. In the US, on the other hand, the beef imported from Central America is mostly used to make pet food and hamburgers. The price of the Central American beef in the US (which is roughly half the price of the beef produced in the US from grass-fed cattle) does not represent its real ecological cost. The reason is that cattle ranching has proved to be the worst form of land use for the fragile soil of Central America on which the tropical forests existed before
1960. It was found that within 5 to 7 years of clearing the forest, the productivity of the soil dropped dramatically and the cattle ranches had to move on to some other areas and clear more forests.
In our own country, the first major attack on the forests of the North-Eastern India came when tea plantations were established. The current over fishing on India's coast is taking place mainly because of the heavy demand for prawns in the markets of rich Western countries and Japan. This over- fishing often leads to tension and violent encounter between traditional fishermen and the owners of the mechanized trawlers. As a result, India and several other countries in South-East Asia have established regulations to prevent trawler operators from fishing in the first few kilometers from the coast, a zone reserved for the traditional fishermen. Similarly, the export of frog-legs from India to France and other European countries to cater to the palates of rich Western consumers has led to tremendous increase in the population of agricultural pests in the affected areas. To control these pests, farmers have to use large amounts of costly pesticides which, in turn, leads to more environmental pollution.
The pattern of mindless exploitation of natural resources that we see on the global scale simply repeats itself on the national scale. Exactly what the industry of the rich Western countries does to the environment of poor Third World countries, the Indian industry does the same to the environment of the resource-rich and economically poor states of India like Orissa, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. Nearly half the industrial output in India comes from biomass-based industries like cotton, textiles, rayon, paper, plywood, rubber, soap, sugar, tobacco, jute, chocolate, tea, coffee, food processing, packaging and vegetable oils. Each of these industries exerts heavy pressure on the cultivated and forest lands of the country. These biomass-based industries need crop lands, forests, irrigation and energy. Thus, we see that one of the main sources of environmental degradation in the world is the heavy demand for natural resources by the high rate of consumption of the rich, whether they are rich nations or rich groups and individuals within the nation itself, and it is mainly their wastes that contribute to the global pollution.

1.4   Explain in brief the effects of environmental degradation in India.

One of the major effects of environmental degradation due to industrialization is the large-scale destruction of our forests, and this has a major impact on the productivity of our crop lands. The reduction of crop-land productivity due to the destruction of forests occurs in two ways. In the first place, when forests arc destroyed, there is a many-fold increases in the rate of soil erosion. The result is that the soil literally gets washed leading to an intensified cycle of floods and drought. Secondly, the destruction of forests leads to the shortage of firewood and this has an adverse impact on the productivity of crop lands. The reason is that when firewood becomes
scarce, people begin to use cowdung and crop wastes as fuel for cooking and other purposes. As a result, every part of crop plants gets used (as fodder or fuel) and nothing goes back to the soil to enrich it. Over a period of time, this constant drain of nutrients from the soil adversely affects it productivity. The more intensive the agriculture (due to the use of high-yielding varities); without any manure and crop wastes going back into the soil, the faster is the nutrient drain. The district of Ludhiana in Punjab, for example, has the highest yield per hectare of many cereals today; but Ludhiana has also the highest deficiency of many micronutrients in its soil. In Punjab, many fanners have already started using zinc routinely as a fertilizer. If the dram of micronutrients from the soil continues, the farmers will soon be using sulphur, manganese and iron as fertilizers. The micronutrient fertilizer industry is likely to become a boom industry in the near future.

1.5  How is the ozone layer being destroyed? Explain in detail.

ln the stratosphere, the destruction (or depletion) of the ozone layer is mostly Caused by elemental chlorine a toms. The mechanism for this destruction of ozone involves the following two reactions:
O3 + Cl                                      ClO+O2
ClO + O3                                    Cl 9+2O2

Of course, there are some other chemical reactions going on in the stratosphere that modify and compete with the above two reactions. But if we ignore the other reactions and add the above two reactions, then we find that the net result is the following reaction:

      2O3 + Cl                                      3O2+Cl

Thus, in the presence of chlorine atoms (Cl), two ozone molecules are converted into three oxygen molecules, while there is no net consumption of Cl atoms, which merely act as a catalyst. As a result, one Cl atom can go on
converting many ozone molecules (O3) to ordinary oxygen molecules (O2) before it is consumed by some other chemical reactions. It has been estimated that a single chlorine atom in the stratosphere can convert as many as 106 to 106 O3 molecules to 0, molecules before being consumed by some other reactions. This mechanism is often referred to as the catalytic destruction of ozone since the chlorine atoms act as a catalyst for the reaction.
Most of the chlorine in the world is in the form of chemically stable sodium chloride (NaCI), either dissolved in the oceans or in underground salt deposits formed by the evaporation of ancient oceans. Elemental chlorine (Cl), which is a very reactive chemical, has a very short life-time in the lower atmosphere and has few natural ways to get from the lower atmosphere up to the ozone layer in the stratosphere. The only naturally occurring chemical that can transport much chlorine high enough into' the stratosphere to damage the ozone layer is methyl chloride (CH3CI), which is produced in large quantities by biological processes in shallow oceans. Most of this methyl chloride is destroyed in the troposphere (the lower atmosphere), but approximately 3% of the world-wide methyl chloride emissions reach the stratospheric ozone layer. Chemically active solar ultraviolet light in the range of 200 to 280 nm, which enters the ozone layer but does not penetrate below it, is strong enough to split up the methyl chloride molecules, releasing Cl atoms, which initiate the reactions given
earlier and destroy the ozone molecules. Before we had the synthetic halogen compounds known as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methyl was probably the main natural destroyer of the ozone layer. However, this destruction of the ozone was in balance with its natural production mechanisms, leading
to a steady-state ozone layer.
Starting about a hundred years ago (i.e., from the first decade of the twentieth century), humans began releasing into the atmosphere synthetic chlorine-containing compounds in significant amount. The compounds like methyl chloride (CH3CI) that also contain hydrogen atoms can be attacked in the atmosphere by the OH radical. As a result, most of such chlorine- containing compounds do not survive long enough in the atmosphere to reach the stratosphere. Carbon tetrachloride (CCI,), on the other hand, has no hydrogen atom; so most of it is believed to reach the stratosphere and participate in the destruction of the ozone layer. The world production of carbon tetrachloride, however, has remained more or less constant over the last 70-80 years.

1.6   How should we protect the ozone layer? Write in brief.

So far the only method we know to protect the stratospheric ozone layer is to limit the emission of those substances (mainly CFCs) that can destroy it. No one knows of another material we could send into the stratosphere to protect the ozone layer from CFCs. The threat to the ozone layer is so severe that international conferences have been held and declarations and treaties have been adopted that commit the nations to restrict and eventually eliminate the use of CFCs. For some applications of the CFCs, satisfactory replacements are alread available and for others, they are being sought on an emergency basis. Many of the proposed substitutes for CFCs are hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), which contain atleast one hydrogen atom; so they are susceptible to attack by OH radicals in the stratosphere.
Huge amounts of money and effort are being spent now to develop suitable substitutes for the CFCs. The original CFCs were designed to be non- toxic, non-flammable and chemically inert. There replacements should have all these properties and, in addition, a low ozone depletion potential (ODP). The ODP is a relative measure of the ability of a gas or vapour to attack and destroy the stratospheric ozone layer. It is expressed as a function of the percentage weight of chlorine in the halogenated hydrocarbon (to be used a CFC substitute) and its lifetime in the stratosphere.
The chemical industry' is developing two major types of CFC substitutes. One of these, known as the hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) family, has a fairly low ODP. The other group, known as the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) family, has zero ozone depletion potential since the members of this family have no chlorine atoms in their molecules. It may be noted, however, that the members of both families (HCFC and HFC) contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Many chemical companies, including the industrial giants like Du Font (USA) and the Imperial Chemical Industries (UK), argue that the world should switch over to the HCFCs as an interim step because they are cheaper to produce and simpler to use.
Compared to the CFCs, the hydrofluorocarbon (HFCs) are less stable and readily hydrolysed in the troposphere by the OH attack; so they are believed to be more environment tally acceptable than the CFCs. The data on the new HFCs are, however, scarce and of Limited accuracy and this is a major deterrent to their adoption as CFC substitutes.
Another problem with the CFC substitutes is that they are not as good as the CFCs. For example, one HCFC (known as HCFC-2), which, is already being used in large-scale refrigerator installations in supermarkets, etc., cannot be used in domestic refrigerators. Another substitute, a hydrofluorocarbon known as HFC-134a, is under development for domestic refrigerators; but it is likely to cost at least five times more than the CFCs used currently for this purpose.
In addition to the problems mentioned above, the CFC substitutes will require a substantial amount of re-engineering in many applications. In case of domestic refrigerators, for example, larger compressors and pumps may be needed when CFC replacements are used. These substitutes may also require more energy, thus forcing us to burn larger amount of fossil fuel, leading to more global warming.

1.7   Describe some methods totreatand dispose the municipal sewage.

In developing countries, the organic pollutional load (contributed mainly by municipal sewage) is a major problem in connection with water pollution. In India, it has been estimated that municipal sewage contributes 90% organic pollutants to our river systems, 7% is contributed by large and medium industries, while the remaining 3% comes from small-scale industries. Thus treatment, utilization and proper disposal of municipal sewage are very
important steps towards the control of water pollution. Some of the important methods used for the disposal of sewage are as follows :
(1) Land Disposal and Sewage Irrigation. In this method, the sewage is disposed off on land (often for the purpose of irrigation) instead of discharging it into a water body. In this case, the land area acts as a crude filter and stabilizes the sewage by aerobic filtration. The sewage is usually given primary treatment before its disposal on land. This method is very similar to intermittent sand filtration. In case of sewage irrigation, the water and the fertilizing elements in the sewage, viz., nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium, are utilized to raise crops. Hence, this method has the special advantage of fertilizing the land.
(2) Dilution. In this method, the sewage is discharged into a large body of water like river lake or sea. The sewage is usually treated before discharging it into a water body to ensure that the condition of the receiving water body does not deteriorate to the extent of impacting on its normal use. I he cities arid towns which are situated near a large river (Allahabad, Kanpur, Varanasi and Patna, all of which are situated near the river Ganga) mainly use the method of dilution to dispose off their sewage. This method is considered quite satisfactory during the rainy season when the dilutionfactor is extremely high, but not suitable for the period from November to June, when the volume of river flow or the volume of water in the river is low,
Treatment of Sewage
Primary Treatment: The primary treatment of sewage mainly consists of physical separation of floating and suspended solids (that are settleable) from the sewage. The main equipment used for the primary treatment are screens, grit chambers, detritus tanks, skimming tanks and settling tanks.
Secondary Treatment:  The secondary treatment of sewage includes flocculation and precipitation of the remaining materials in the sewage with the help of biological agencies, and their physical separation in secondary settling tanks. The by-products of the secondary treatment process are screenings, grit and sludges of different kinds. Out of these, the first two can be easily disposed off by burial or burning. Sludge, on the other hand, contains unstable volatile organic substances; so it may be treated by the method of digestion. In the process of digestion of sludges, various gases are produced with high calorific value which can be successfully utilized for heating or power generation. The solid materials left behind (i.e., the digested sludge) contain many fertilizing materials and are useful as manure or soil builder.
Sludge Digestion:  The process of sludge digestion consists of liquefaction of organic materials in the sludge by  anaerobic bacteria, which produce an alkaline reaction. When the sludge is first placed in the digesting tank., acid digestion with the production of noxious gases results and eventually, alkaline digestion prevails. Once established, the alkaline condition remains in the digestor for an indefinite period. The gases given off by the sludge are mainly methane (CH~) with some carbon dioxide (CO;) and small quantities of other gases. Among the sludge gases, methane has a calorific value of 8,000 kcal/m3 Since methane forms about 67% of the sludge gases, the calorific value of the sludge gas can be taken to be approximately 5,334 kcal/m3 The sludge gas occupies about 0.95 m3/kg of volume at normal temperature and atmospheric pressure. The main use of the sludge gas, apart from heating the digestion tanks, is for generating power. The power thus generated is enough to pump the entire sewage. Dried digested sludge can be used as a fertilizer since it contains 0.8% to 3.5.% nitrogen, about 1.6% phosphorous and 0.35% potassium on the basis of the dry weight of solids. The digested sludge may also be used for land filling, incinerated to produce heat and power, or dumped into large bodies of water.

(Objective/Short Type)

1.8   What are SOx and NOx.?

The two oxides of sulpher are sulpher dioxide (SO2) and sulpher trioxide (SO3), which are collectively known as SOx , where x=2 or x=3.
   There are several oxide of nitrogen (such as N2O, NO,NO2,N2O2 and N2O5), Which are collectively known as NOx.

1.9   List four hea vy me tals that pollute water.

heavy metals like Hg (murcury), Cd (cadmium), Pb (lead), As , Se and Sb.

1.10     What is a septic tank ?

Ans :   
An important method used to process the domestic sewage is the septic tank, which is an underground sewage container madeof concrete.

1.11     What are the c-wastes ?

Ans :   
It has been estimated that more than one billion PCs (personal computers) have already been sold globally and there has also been a spurt in the sales of other electronic items like refrigerators, air conditioners, cellular phones and personal stereos. As a result, the quantum of electronic As a result, the quantum of electronic waste (discarded  electronic items or “e-waste”)

1.12    What is ozone?

Ans :   
The ozone (O3) is a variant of oxygen (O2), which contains three oxygen atoms instead of the usual two, as in the case of the oxygen molcule.

1.13     The common methods for the disposal of solid wastes are:

(A) Sanitary land-fill            (b) Incineration
(c)  Composting                     (d)  None of these.

1.14     India is a:
(a)  Developed country among developing nations
(b) Developing country among developed nations
(c)  Both
(d) Only (a).

1.15     Thermal power plants use:

(a) Coal                 (b) Oil
(c)  Uranium                    (d)  Strontium

1.16      Purification of gaseous pollutants maybe achieved by;

(a)  Catalyric conversion           (b)  Adsorption
(c)  Absorption                          (d)  All of these.

1.17      Complex soil pollutants include:
(a)  Fly-ash                     (b)  Plastics
(c) Both                          (d) Neither.

1.18      Write true or false:

Qua: Herbicides, fungicides and insecticides belong to the family of pesticides.
Ans : True

1.19      Write true or false—

Qua: Detergents are inorganic chemicals.
Ans : Detergents are organic chemicals.
1.20      Write true or false:

       Qua: Radioactive isotopes have a Very long half-life.
      Ans : Radioactive isotopes have a short half-life.

1.21      Write true or false:  
Qua: Cadmium poisoning may lead to formation of kidney stones
Ans: Cadmium poisoning may lead to toxic effect

1.22     Write true or false:
Qua:  Increase in dissolved oxygen adversely affects the aquatic plants and animals.
Ans : Reduce in dissolved oxygen adversely affects the aquatic plants and animals.

1.23  Write true or false:
Qua:  Lime can not be used to precipitate phosphorous.
Ans :  Lime can be used to precipitate phosphorous.

1.24      Write true or false:

Qua:  The anaerobic treatment process is not effective for effluents containing high concentration of orgaiuc matters.
Ans:  The anaerobic treatment process has been effective for effluents containing high concentration of orgaiuc matters.
1.25     Fill up the blank:

Prolonged exposure to   noise may cause hearing loss.

1.26   Fill up the blank:

 Gobar gas is a mixture of methane (60%) and carbon dioxide (35%)

1.27   Fill up the blank:

Heat is an example of Thermal pollutant

1.28   Match thefollowing:
   (A) Noise pollution                           (a)  Carcinogin
   (B)  Dioxin          (b)  Detritus tank
   (C)  Fly-ash          (c)  Auditory effect
   (D)  Sewage          (d)  Power plant


1.29   Match the following:

(A) Brain damage       (a)  DDT
(B)  Deforestation      (b)  Population
(C) Third World countries      (c)  Soil  erosion
(D) White lung lung      (d)  Textiles


1.30   Write the odd ones :

(a)  Greenhouse effect
(b)  Global warming
(c)   Suspended particulate matters
   (d) Acid rain.

« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »

March 28, 2010, 08:47:18 AM
Reply #1
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Very valuable information shared. Useful to all AMIEans.
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
March 28, 2010, 10:57:17 AM
Reply #2
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Environmental Degradation and its Protection -- A Legal Perspectives

“O Zone” -- A sound, first time heard by the homo-sapiens of this earth in the early Eighties. Some were confused and some were inquisitive. What is it? “O Zone layer” discovered by the scientists and sent an alarm signal all over the world about the impending danger and environmental disaster of our dear earth. “O Zone Layer” created by the emission of poisonous gases from the industrial hubs in the upper sphere of the atmosphere and through the said zones , the deadly Ultra Violet Ray find its easy access to the bed of the earth. As a result it creates deadly health hazards to all the living beings of this earth. This has awakened the mind of the people to do something to minimize and eradicate environmental disaster from this earth.

Thereafter “Kyoto Protocol” was signed by all the countries sans United States of America which ranked first as the industrial polluting country in the world and the said protocol has become effective with effect from 16th February’2005 and all signatory country agreed to abide by the norms to minimize and eradicate industrial pollution. “Environment” and its degradation and preservation have been a burning topic at present all over the world. In the last two decades, an increased concern for the purity of environment has been by many countries and witnessed a rapid and extensive legislative activity to check whatever that polluted the environment. In today’s scenario international community is very concerned and vigilant on its preservation all over the world.

The word “Environment” is of broad spectrum which brings within its ambit, Hygienic atmosphere and Ecological balance. It is therefore not only the duty of the State but also the duty of every citizen to maintain hygienic environment. Many are the noteworthy judicial decisions that touched upon the various aspects environmental pollution and degradation and all these development have found an echo in India too. Article 21 of the Constitution of India envisages right to life as a fundamental right and therefore enjoyment of life and its attainment including the right to life with human dignity encompasses within its ambits. The protection and preservation of environment, ecological balance free from pollution of air and water, sanitation without which life can not be enjoyed. Pollution of environment, ecological, air, water regarded as violation of Article 21. Therefore hygienic environment is an integral facets of right to healthy life. Recently, Supreme Court had made many land mark judgments for the preservation of environment, ecology, wildlife, forests ,etc.

Some of these are Taj Mahal case checkmating the pollution, forest of North-East case relating to ban on felling of trees, Church Gate case restricting noise pollution created by religious prayer through audio amplifier system, etc. Therefore enforcement of Article 21 of the Constitution of India has become an effective tool for the preservation of environment and ecology. For the preservation of environment, the Central Government and State Governments had enacted many statutes like, The Environment Protection Act’1986, Wildlife Protection Act’1972, Madras Town Nuisance Act’1889, etc. As a part to educate the people, the Central Government had launched National Environment Awareness Campaign through the Ministry of Environment and Forest every year since 1986 with the objective of creating environmental awareness at the national level.

Through the evolution of earth, nature was endowed with an environment which was conductive to the production of life and ultimately evolution of human life. Since that time environment consists of two components –

i) Physical environment – includes chemical and geographical, etc.
ii) Biological environment – consisting of plants and animals which are known as biosphere.

Broadly, environment may be divided into four major elements --- a) Land, b) Water, c) Air and d) Living organism.

Environmental Pollution occurs in various ways and pollution of air, water , land is alarmingly moving northwards. Pollution is categorized into the following division -
A. Pollution
Radiation Pollution --- For whatever purposes nuclear energy is used – be it for peaceful purpose or nuclear warfare – the physical and bio environment cannot get way with its hazards. These are the delayed effect of fall out and increasingly important hazards of peacetime user of radiation.

Air Pollution --- All most all chemicals released into air eventually find their way to atmosphere. Chemicals such as pesticides are often sprayed as mists which may drift for several kilometers from their point of application. Pollutants like asbestos fibres, which can cause virulent lung cancer which can occur many years after the actual exposure. Similarly, nitrogen oxides exhausted from the car are component of automobile smog and nickel and chromium containing dusts which can initiate lung cancer.

Water Pollution --- Pollution of fresh water is one of the most serious environmental problems for the world as a whole. Industrial process requires huge quantity of water but at the same time dilute waste products to the river. Serious sources of water pollution is the leaching of sulphide from mine working and dump and became toxic which flows down to river causing serious contamination of water and health hazards.

Soil Pollution --- Soil in a forest is liable to get eroded quickly through the rain or wind unless it is adequately covered by the vegetation. Researchers initially blamed the climatic condition, today suspicion focused on environmental pollution, particularly the acid rain caused auto and industrial emissions. Acid rain prevents micro organism in soil from converting organic debris into fertilizer.

Noise Pollution --- Noise usually defined as unwanted sound or sound without value. Noise as an environmental pollutant becomes an object of serious social concern. Yet noise is a persistent pollutant in many practical situations where noise sources cannot be suppressed and degrades the quality of life.

B. Ecosystems:
Environmentalists are worried over the ill effects of increased burning of fossil fuels and of late fire woods without equivalent plantation. Such burning emits carbon dioxide and changes the temperature pattern of the atmosphere by diffusion of heat into space , a phenomenon known as “Green House effect”.

Realizing the potential threat, “ CHIPKO MOVEMENT” was launched in the year 1970 at Gopeswar (Garwal district of Uttaranhal). Scores of neighbourly villages were divested by a flash flood in Alakananda river. There was clear evidence that the flood had been caused by man made erosion due to large scale felling of trees in this Himalayan region. When strong shower falls on the slope of the hill , they wash away the loose soil cover and only trees can hold the soil cover. Sri C.P. Bhatt, the leader of the “Chipko Movement”, at that point of time said that “We will embrace (chipko) the trees. If they want to cut them, their axes will first have to fall on us”. This was told to the forest contractors in March’1973 who came to Reni village near Tibetan border to cut the trees. Thus these tree hugging (Chipko) programme spread spontaneously and several eco-development camps were organized.

C. Wildlife
A major factor responsible for the decline of wildlife all over the world is trade and commerce. This aroused such concern that an international treaty was drawn up in 1973 to protect wildlife against such over exploitation and prevent international trade from threatening endangered species from extinction. The aforesaid treaty known as CITES, The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna, and the said treaty came into force from 1st July’1975 and ratified by 120 countries.

The notion that, the public has a right to expect certain lands and natural areas to retain their natural characteristics finding its way into the law of the land. Ancient Roman Empire developed a legal theory known as the “Doctrine of the Public Trust”. The Public Trust Doctrine primarily rests on the principle that certain resources like, air ,sea, waters and forests have such a great importance to the people as a whole that it would be wholly unjustified to make them a subject of private ownership and such resources being gift of nature should be made freely available to everyone irrespective of the status in life. The public trust doctrine under the English Common Law extended only to certain traditional uses like such as navigation, commerce and fishing. The American Court in recent cases expanded the concept of The public trust doctrine and the observation of Supreme Court of United States of America in Monolake case (National Audubon Society –Vs- Supreme Court of Alpine country–33CAL 3d 419) clearly show the judicial concern in protecting all categorically important land, fresh water, wet lands

The observation therein to the effect that the protection of ecological value is among the purpose of public trust and may give rise to an argument that the ecology and the environmental protection is a relevant factor and the court in United States of America finally began to adopt this reasoning and doctrine. English Common Law includes Public Trust Doctrine as part of its juris product. Environmental Law has now become a specialized field. In the decision which was taken on the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held at Rio de Janeiro in June’1992 in which India also participated and the States were called upon to develop natural laws regarding liability and compensation for the victims of pollution and other environmental damages. With increasing threats to the environmental degradation taking place in different part of the country, it may not be possible for any single authority to effectively control the same.

“Sustainable development” has come to be accepted as viable concept to eradicate poverty and improve the quality of human life. Essential feature of “Sustainable development” are as fellows –
i) Precautionary principle -- This principle in the context of municipal law means environmental measures by the State Government and the statutory authorities must anticipate, prevent and attack the causes of environmental degradation. The onus of proof is on the actor or the developer/industrialists to show that his action is environmentally benign. Precautionary principle has been accepted as part of the law of the land and Article 21,47, 48-A and 51-A(g) of the Constitution of India gave clear mandate to the State to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forest and wildlife of the country.

ii) The polluter Pay Principle – This principle is a sound principle and interpreted by the Supreme Court that absolute liability to harm to the environment extends not only to compensate the victims but also cost of restoring the environmental degradation. As such the polluter is liable to pay the cost to the individual sufferers as well as the cost of reversing the damaged ecology.

Various laws has been framed in India for the protection of environment and some of these are cited below-
i) Section 268 to 290 of Indian Penal Code deals with public nuisances. Public nuisance means pollution of air, water, blasting, excessive smoke, filth and other polluting activities.
ii) Section 133 and 143 of Code of Criminal Procedure Code and Section 91 of Code of Civil Procedure envisages that a person may approach a Magistrate and District Judge respectively by filing a complain or petition about the public nuisance.
iii) Under Law of Torts , special damage can be claimed from nuisance maker/violator of environment.
iv) The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act’1974,
v) The Environment Protection Act’1986,
vi) Wildlife (Protection) Act’1972,
vii) The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act’1981,
viii) The Prevention of Cruelty of Animals Act’1960,
ix) The National Environment Tribunal Act’1995.

Problem of pollution is the outcome of urbanization, overpopulation and industrialization. In modern times, therefore, it needs more effective legal opinions to counter the above. Accordingly Indian parliament passed The Environment Protection Act’1986 to safeguard the environmental degradation. The Indian Penal Code has few provisions on the subject, but they are ineffective when faced with the problems of an industrialized society. The first problem to attract the attention of certain state legislation in India was water pollution. But it was only in 1974 that a Central Act was enacted on the subject to be followed by The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act’1977 and thereafter most drastic law had been enacted as Environment (Protection) Act’1986. India first got the taste of environmental disaster by two catastrophes that befell India – the Bhopal disaster in 1984 and Sri Ram Fertilizer Plant leak in 1985.

The Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster (Processing of claims) Act’1985 gave the Central Government the sole authority to represent (in litigation) the victims of Bhopal for compensation claims against the Union Carbide Company. Sri Ram gas Leak did not generate legislative activity but prompted Mr. M.C.Mehta (On behalf of Hindustani Andolon) and certain other organizations to start to use the effective legal tool in the form of Public Interest Litigation (PIL). This gave the Supreme Court an opportunity to enunciate certain important doctrine on tort law, corporate law (particularly the civil liability of directors for wrongs committed by the corporate body).

Recently, Supreme Court has broadly and liberally interpreted the Article 21 and transgressed into the area of protection of environment and held that the protection of environment and citizen’s right to live in eco-friendly atmosphere interpreted as the basic right guaranteed under Article 21. Recently to mitigate the needs of environment related litigation, “Green Benches” had been constituted in many High Courts in the Country. Some
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
March 31, 2010, 12:38:50 PM
Reply #3
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« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
March 31, 2010, 12:49:35 PM
Reply #4
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Do not write answer this way in ur exams,,,as society & environemnt is theoritical paper no one has time to read all stuff written by u,,
Put ur answer point wise in such a way so that it attarcts eye to examinor. Dont write history of question. directly get to point & explain it,, dont write lengthy essay in answer.

« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
Komal Maskariya
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April 01, 2010, 03:44:40 PM
Reply #5
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Also write point to point and underline each heading subheadings.
And start with some diagrams or if diagram is not their..then draw some tree like structure (hierarchy) for types(for imp points).

The example u can see in Society & Environment handout, one which sent by iei to Sec-A students.

Very Good one.
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »

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