Group A

Instrument performance characteristics and specifications: Static and dynamic, analog and
digital instruments. Errors in measurements—error, correction, precision, accuracy, statistical
analysis of errors, mean, median, mode, standard deviation. Confidence intervals.
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO), use of CRO in voltage measurements and waveform
Measurements of kVAh and kVARh in three-phase load, trivector meter, summation
metering, summation current transformer.
Use of IVD in impedance comparison, low resistance comparison by using IVD.
Study of bridge balance convergence and bridge sensitivity in four-arm a.c. bridges, quad
bridge for comparison of resistance with standard calculable capacitor.

Group B


A/D and D/A converters, digital voltmeters and multimeters, use of flip-flop circuits in up-
down counters, digital displays.
Electrical transducers, linear variable differential transformers (LVDT), strain gauge, fluid
flow and pressure measurements, temperature transducer, light and radiation transducer.
Introduction to instrumentation amplifier, CMRR and active filter, sample and hold circuit,
data transmission in digital instrument systems and PC, IEEE-488 bus, introduction to long
distance data transmission (modems).



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