PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS
Group A

Process control principles, process control block
diagram, loop components—sensor and transmitter, controller, final control element. Process
transfer functions - process lag and dead time, self-regulating and non-self-regulating
processes.
Process instrumentation diagram: Symbols and interconnections.
Process control sensors and transmitter, thermal sensors, mechanical sensors, analog signal
conditioning— instrumentation amplifier, signal isolation, and filter.
Analog signal transmission systems.
Analog process controller, P, PI, PD and PID modes of operation, controller-tuning methods,
on-off controllers, anti-integral windup, anti-derivative kick and controller saturation.
Velocity or incremental controller. Design of analog process controller. Pneumatic process
controllers-pneumatic amplifiers and relays.
Digital process controllers—theory. Digital controller in a process control loop, analog-todigital and digital-to-analog converters. Realization of digital controller.
Final control elements: Actuators, positioners and control valves.
Recorders: Analog, digital and data loggers.



Group B

 

Control loop characteristics. Controllability and stability-root locus and Bode plot techniques.
Control schemes. Ratio-control, cascade control, feed forward control and multi-loop control-
P1D control. Process loop tuning-process reaction method. Ziegler-Nichols method and
frequency response methods.
Characteristics of chemical processes. Heat exchangers, distillation columns, chemical
reactors, pH and blending processes, delay time and its effect. Flow control, pressure controlevel control, and temperature control. Boiler control-feed water control, drum-level control,
combustion control and 3-point control.
Computer control of processes. Direct digital control and supervisory control. Adaptive
control systems.

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