Continuous-time systems: Performance specifications in time-domain and frequency domain.
Correlation between time domain and frequency domain specifications.
Error coefficients. Design approaches. Frequency domain vs. S-plane design. Types of
compensation. Controllability and observability of control systems.
Cascade compensation: Lead, lag, and lag-lead compensators. Use of Bode diagram. Root
locus, and Nyquist diagram for compensator design. Feedback compensator design, use of
inverse Nyquist diagram, minor loop feedback compensation. PID controllers. Linear state
variable feedback. Pole placement using state variable feedback.
Nonlinear systems: Types of common non-linearities. Properties of non-linear systems.
Available techniques for analysing non-linear systems. Linearising approximations.
Describing function techniques. Detecting limit crycling and instability. Phase plane
methods. Lyapunov's stability criterion. Popov's Method for stability analysis of non-linear
Discrete-time systems: Introduction to discrete-time systems.
Z-transforms, inverse Z-transforms and bi-linear transformations.
Pulse transfer functions. Tune response of sampled data systems. Effect of sample hold and
Frequency response: Bode plots, polar plots and gain (db) vs. phase plots. Stability using Jury
criterion, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Nyquist criterion, Bode plot and root locus. Design of
compensators in Z-domain and W-domain.
State space representation of discrete systems and sampled-data systems. Deriving Z-transfer
function model from state model of discrete systems. Solving time-invariant state equations.State transition matrix. Controllability and observability of time-invariant discrete systems.