ENERGY SYSTEMS
Group A


Sources of conventional energy. Fossil fuels—solid fossil fuel—coal and lignite, formation,
physical properties and chemical properties. Combustion equations. Coal analyses—
proximate and ultimate, determination of air/fuel ratio for coal-fired boilers.
Liquid and gaseous fossil fuels: Petroleum and natural gas. Physical and chemical properties.
Combustion equations. Manufactured and byproduct gases composition, heating value, use.
Air/fuel ratio for liquid and gaseous fuel boilers.
Cogeneration and combined cycle generation. Fiuidised bed combustion. Nuclear fission
reactions: Fuel isotope energy release in fission. Fertile isotopes.
Converter and breeder reactors. Nuclear fusion-fusion reactions. Energy release in fusion.
Advantages and disadvantages of nuclear fusion.
Hydro energy; Run of the river and pumped storage systems. Energy and power equations.
Available water head. Impulse and reaction type hydro turbines.
Environmental effects of conventional energy conversion. Energy conservation and energy
audit.

Group B


Different forms of non-conventional energy sources: Solar, wind, geothermal, ocean, biogas,
etc.
Two types of non-conventional energy conversion processes: a) Direct conversion to
electrical energy, viz, photovoltaic, fuel cells, etc.; b) Primary conversion to non-electrical
energy viz. solar-thermal, wind-turbine, ocean-thermal, tidal, etc.
Solar: Terrestrial solar radiation, solar-thermal conversion, techniques of collection, storage
and utilization, types of solar collectors, selective surfaces, thermal processes, power
generation, etc.
Photoelectric effect, solar cells, crystalline and amorphous semiconductors as solar cell
materials, equivalent circuit and efficiency considerations.
Wind: Principles of wind power, wind-turbine operation, state characteristics, small
machines, large machines.
Geothermal and ocean: Origin and types of geothermal energy, vapour dominated systems,
liquid dominated systems, flashed-steam type.
Ocean temperature differences, open cycle, closed cycle, ocean-waves, energy and power
from wave, tides, simple single pool tidal system.
Biogas: Biogas conversion mechanisms, source of waste, simple digester, composition and
calorific value of biogas.

Chemical: Principles of electrochemical cell operation, fuel cells, different components offuel cells, hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells, hydro-carbon fuel cells, Faraday's law of electrolysis and thermodynamics of electrochemical energy conversion, ideal cell voltage, ideal cell efficiency, practical limitations.
Comparative study of conventional and non-conventional energy conversion as regards
efficiency, economics and environmental effects.



 

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