Introduction to human physiology: Body skeleton: Nerve physiology, membrane protenual
and action potential, function of nerves and of myoneural junction.
Muscle physiology: Functions of skeleton and smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and its
Heart physiology: Dynamics of system, blood flow, arterial pressure, ECG.
Respirations: Mechanism of respiration.
Neuro physiology: C N S function of spinal cord and cord reflexes.
Transducers and electrodes: Different types of transducers and their selection for biomedical
applications. Electrode theory. Different types of electrodes-hydrogen, calomel, Ag-AgCI,
pH, P02-PC02 electrodes, selection criteria of electrodes.
Measurement and recording: Cardiovascular measurement: The heart and other
cardiovascular systems. Measurement of blood pressure, blood flow, cardiac output and
cardiac rate. Electrocardiography, phonocardiography ballistocardiography,
plethysmography, magnet cardiography, computer applications.
Measurement of electrical activities in muscles and brain. Electromyography,
electroencephalograph and their interpretation.
Respiratory mechanism. Measurement of gas volume, flow rate, carbon dioxide and oxygen
concentration in inhaled air, respiratory controller.
Instrumentation for clinical laboratory: Measurement of pi f value of blood, ESR
measurements, haemoglobin measurement, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration in
blood, GSR measurement, polarographic measurements, computer applications.
Medical imaging: Ultrasound imaging, radiography magnetic resonance technique and
Biotelemetry: Transmission and reception aspects of biological signals via long distances.
Patient care monitoring.
Electronic instruments affecting the human body. Stimulator, defibrillator, pacemaker,
diathermy, blood pumps, myoelectric control of paralysed muscles.