Group A

Functional description of instrumentation systems. Performance characteristics-static and
dynamic, time and frequency responses.
Electrical passive transducers. Hot wire anemometers and associated circuit, LVDT and
phase-sensitive: detection, variable reluctance type transducers and associated circuits.
Capacitive microphone and associated circuits.
Magnetostrictive transducers: Magnetostrictive materials and their application to
measurement of force.. Hall transducers: principles and applications.
Thermocouple, semiconductor-type temperature sensors.
Piezoelectric transducers: Piezoelectric crystal and its properties, sensitive coefficients,
ferroelectric materials, bimorph, charge amplifiers, measurement of force.

Group B

Signal conditioning: Push-pull arrangement and reduction of non-linearity. Linearizing
circuits and their applications. Differential amplifiers, instrumentation amplifiers, logarithmic amplifiers. Sources of noise and their reduction, grounding and shielding techniques.
Special transducers: Digital shaft encoders. DC and AC tachogenerators, synchros.
Actuators and servos: DC and AC servomotors, step motors. Elastic transducers: Springs
bellows, diaphragms, Bourdon tubes-their characteristics and applications, combination of elastic and electrical transducers. Pneumatic sensors.


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