Group A

Introduction-Principles of data communications: Analog and digital transmission,
multiplexing, transmission impairments, concepts of frequency spectrum and bandwidth,
bandwidth efficient modulation techniques.
Basics of computer networks: Protocol hierarchies, design issues for the layers, interfaces and
services. Concepts of circuit switching and packet switching, connection-oriented and
connectionless services. Reference models—OSI model and TCP/IP reference model.
Example networks.
Physical layer: Transmission media—twisted pair, coaxial cable, optical fibre. Wireless
transmission—radio, microwave, infrared and millimeter waves, telephone (Systems, cell
phones. RS-232C, SONET, modems.
Data link layer: Services provided to the network layer, framing, error control, flow control.
Error detection and correction. Unrestricted simplex protocol, stop-and-wait protocol, sliding
window protocols. HDLC.
Network layer: Design issues. Routing algorithms. Congestion control. Internetworking:
concepts of subnetwork, bridges, etc. X.25 frame relay.

Group B

Transport layer: Services provided to the upper layers. Elements of transport control
protocols—addressing, establishing a connection, releasing a connection, flow control and
buffering, crash recovery. Example of simple protocols using services primitives. TCP and
IP: IPV4 datagram, IP addressing. ICMP.
Media access control protocols: Concept of LANs and MANs. ALOHA, slotted ALOHA,
CSMA, CSMA/ €D. Ethernet, token bus, token ring, FDDL
ATM: Protocol architecture. ATM logical connections. ATM cells. Transmission of ATM
cells. ATM adaptation layer. Traffic and congestion control.
Narrowband and broadband ISDN. Application layer: SNMP, SMTP, FTP, TELNET.


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