Concepts of earthquake-resistant design: Objectives. Ductility, ductility reduction factor, over
strength, response reduction factor. Design response spectrum. Lateral stiffness. Building
configuration. Base isolation. Concept of structural control.
Building codes: Performance of buildings in past earthquakes. Historical perspective on code
development-Indian code (IS 1893) provisions for buildings.
Detailing of reinforced concrete and masonry buildings: Provisions of IS 13920, IS 4326, IS
13827. Retrofitting and strengthening of buildings (IS 13935).
Other structures: Introduction to concept of seismic design for bridges and liquid retaining