PRINCIPLES OF GEOINFORMATICS
Group A

Introduction to surveying: Objectives, classification of surveys, Indian topographic series,
map reading.
Linear measurements: Distance measurements with chain and tapes, corrections to
measured length, field survey by chains/tapes.
Compass surveying: True and magnetic bearings, local attraction, fore and back bearing,
various types of compasses and applications, detail plotting, adjustment of compass traverse
using graphical approach.
Levelling: Concepts of Geold, ellipsoid, MSL and level surface, methods of levelling,
determination of height, booking of levelling operation, types of levels, sensitivity. of the
bubble, trigonometric levelling, curvature and refraction effects.
Contouring: Guidelines for preparation of contour m;1ps, methods of contouring.
Plane Tabling (PT): Accessories in PT, methods of PT, re-section method , preparation of
map.
Theodolites: Measurements of horizontal and vertical angles, differences in Vernier and
microplic theodolites, methods of recording angles.
Errors and adjustments: Accuracy and precision, propagation of variance/covariance and
adjustment of errors using observation equation and condition equation approach (matrix
based solution).
Tacheometric surveys: Principle and basic system, subtense bar, various types of
tachometers, plotting with tacheometers.
Curves: Classification, elements of simple circular, compound, reverse, transition, vertical
curves, setting of curves.











Group B

 

Triangulation: Purpose of triangulation and trilateration, classification, strength of figure,
well conditioned triangle, triangulation figures, reconnaissance and station selection,
intervisibility of stations, signal and towers, base lining, computation and adjustment in
triangulation, satellite station.
EDM: Principles and applications, instruments: Geodimeter, Tellurometer, Distomat, etc.
Digital Theodolites/Total Station/GPS: Principles and applications.
Introduction to photogrammetry: Comparison of serial photographs and topographic maps,
definition of basic terms, perspective of near-vertical photograph, scale and coordinates from
photographs, stereoscopy, parallel bar measurements, determination of heights, principle of
radial line triangulation, assumption, limitations and errors.
Introduction to remote sensing: Remote sensing system, data-acquisition and processing,
EMR and spectrum, atmospheric windows, Interaction mechanisms, multi-concept, sensors
and platforms. Interpolation of aerial photographs and satellite imagery and their interaction.
















 

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