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Author Topic: notes of circuit theory and control  (Read 1658 times)

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December 26, 2009, 07:58:53 AM
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if any body have notes of circuit theory and control please send me on my e mail id [email protected]
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »


December 26, 2009, 01:38:28 PM
Reply #1
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Circuit (airfield), also called the pattern, a standard path followed by aircraft when taking off or landing
Circuit court, the name of court systems in several common law jurisdictions, originally meant that a court would hold sessions in multiple locations within its judicial district, especially in sparsely populated areas
Circuit (film), a 2001 gay-themed film set in the world of gay circuit parties
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
December 26, 2009, 01:38:47 PM
Reply #2
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Circuit (film character), from the Munna Bhai series
Circuit (LCMS), local grouping of congregations in the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod
Circuit party, a gay dance event
Circuit (judicial district), an appellate judicial district used in the court systems of several nations
Cycle (graph theory), also called circuit graph theory, a closed path, with no other repeated vertices than the starting and ending vertices
Circuit complexity, studied in computational complexity
Electrical network, also called an electrical circuit
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
December 26, 2009, 01:39:29 PM
Reply #3
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Circuit theory is the theory of accomplishing work by means of routing matter through a loop. The types of matter used are:

In electronic or electrical circuits: electrons (and charged ions, both positive and negative)
In pneumatic circuits: compressed gas (normally ordinary air)
In hydraulic circuits: pressurized, relatively incompressible fluid
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
December 26, 2009, 01:39:50 PM
Reply #4
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Circuit vs. network
An electrical circuit is a collection of electrical components which accomplish a specific task such as heating, lighting or running a motor. This collection may or may not form a complete topological loop, depending on whether it is presently connected to power, integrated into a larger device or circuit, or damaged.[1][2] Sometimes, it is convenient to speak of an electrical circuit as a network, de-emphasizing the return path. Return paths are sometimes omitted from circuit diagrams, making the resulting graphic visually resemble a network topology rather than some sort of loop topology. See circuit diagram and schematic.
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
December 26, 2009, 01:40:08 PM
Reply #5
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Open circuit vs. closed circuit
A fundamental part of circuit analysis is determining whether the matter has a return path to the power source. If the matter is blocked from returning to the power source, either wholly or partially, the entire assemblage will be prevented from accomplishing work. In an electrical circuit, an open circuit is caused intentionally when a user opens a switch or unintentionally when vibration or mechanical damage severs a wire. In a pneumatic or hydraulic circuit, this occurs when a valve is closed or there is a leak in one of the lines or components.

In electrical circuits, closing a switch creates a closed loop for the electrons to flow through. This is sometimes referred to as "completing the circuit." Other synonyms are also used.
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
December 26, 2009, 01:40:26 PM
Reply #6
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Short circuit
In an electrical or electronic circuit, sometimes an unintended connection is made, such as when insulation is broken, frayed, melted or chewed by rodents, or a technician inserts a metal tool into a live device. When this happens, current bypasses some or all of the components in the circuit, taking a "shorter" path back to the power source. This can lead to excessive current drain, which in turn generates excessive heat, damaging or destroying sensitive parts of the system such as transistors and ICs.
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
December 26, 2009, 01:40:48 PM
Reply #7
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Types
There are three basic types of circuit currently used in industry:

Electronic or electrical
Pneumatic
Hydraulic
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
December 26, 2009, 01:41:50 PM
Reply #8
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Power pack may refer to:

a power supply (especially in the context of model trains, slot cars, and other hobbies)
A series of batteries (or battery cells) also called a battery pack
A radioisotope thermoelectric generator
A science fiction term for an advanced battery pack or other power supply
Powerpack Powerpack Ministries, an International Christian children's ministry based in the United Kingdom, led by Heather Thompson
Power Pack, Marvel Comics' preteen superhero team
Powerpack (drivetrain), a term for a modular powertrain, particularly in heavy-duty uses such as construction, military, and railways
Operation Power Pack, a United States military action in the Dominican Republic in 1965
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
December 26, 2009, 01:43:29 PM
Reply #9
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In the fields of communications, signal processing, and in electrical engineering more generally, a signal is any time-varying or spatial-varying quantity.

In the physical world, any quantity measurable through time or over space can be taken as a signal. Within a complex society, any set of human information or machine data can also be taken as a signal. Such information or machine data (for example, the dots on a screen, the ink making up text on a paper page, or the words now flowing into the reader's mind) must all be part of systems existing in the physical world – either living or non-living.

Despite the complexity of such systems, their outputs and inputs can often be represented as simple quantities measurable through time or across space. In the latter half of the 20th century, electrical engineering itself separated into several disciplines, specializing in the design and analysis of physical signals and systems, on the one hand, and in the functional behavior and conceptual structure of the complex human and machine systems, on the other. These engineering disciplines have led the way in the design, study, and implementation of systems that take advantage of signals as simple measurable quantities in order to facilitate the transmission, storage, and manipulation of information.
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
December 26, 2009, 01:43:53 PM
Reply #10
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Definitions specific to subfields are common. For example, in information theory, a signal is a codified message, that is, the sequence of states in a communication channel that encodes a message.

In the context of signal processing, arbitrary binary data streams are not considered as signals, but only analog and digital signals that are representations of analog physical quantities.

In a communication system, a transmitter encodes a message into a signal, which is carried to a receiver by the communications channel. For example, the words "Mary had a little lamb" might be the message spoken into a telephone. The telephone transmitter converts the sounds into an electrical voltage signal. The signal is transmitted to the receiving telephone by wires; and at the receiver it is reconverted into sounds.
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
December 26, 2009, 01:44:19 PM
Reply #11
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Discrete-time and continuous-time signals
If for a signal, the quantities are defined only on a discrete set of times, we call it a discrete-time signal. In other words, a discrete-time real (or complex) signal can be seen as a function from the set of integers to the set of real (or complex) numbers.

A continuous-time real (or complex) signal is any real-valued (or complex-valued) function which is defined for all time t in an interval, most commonly an infinite interval.
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
December 26, 2009, 01:44:41 PM
Reply #12
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Discretization
Main article: Discrete signal
One of the fundamental distinctions between different types of signals is between continuous and discrete time. In the mathematical abstraction, the domain of a continuous-time (CT) signal is the set of real numbers (or some interval thereof), whereas the domain of a discrete-time (DT) signal is the set of integers (or some interval). What these integers represent depends on the nature of the signal.

DT signals often arise via sampling of CT signals. An audio signal, for example consists of a continually fluxuating voltage on a line that can be digitized by an ADC circuit, wherein the circuit will read the voltage level on the line, say, every 50 µs. The resulting stream of numbers are stored as digital data on a discrete-time signal. Computers and other digital devices are restricted to discrete time.
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
December 26, 2009, 01:45:11 PM
Reply #13
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Quantization
Main article: Quantization (signal processing)
If a signal is to be represented as a sequence of numbers, it is impossible to maintain arbitrarily high precision - each number in the sequence must have a finite number of digits. As a result, the values of such a signal are restricted to belong to a finite set; in other words, it is quantized.
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
December 26, 2009, 01:45:52 PM
Reply #14
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In digital signal processing, quantization is the process of approximating ("mapping") a continuous range of values (or a very large set of possible discrete values) by a relatively small ("finite") set of ("values which can still take on continuous range") discrete symbols or integer values. For example, rounding a real number in the interval [0,100] to an integer

In other words, quantization can be described as a mapping that represents a finite continuous interval I = [a,b] of the range of a continuous valued signal, with a single number c, which is also on that interval. For example, rounding to the nearest integer (rounding ½ up) replaces the interval [c − .5,c + .5) with the number c, for integer c. After that quantization we produce a finite set of values which can be encoded by binary techniques for example.

In signal processing, quantization refers to approximating the output by one of a discrete and finite set of values, while replacing the input by a discrete set is called discretization, and is done by sampling: the resulting sampled signal is called a discrete signal (discrete time), and need not be quantized (it can have continuous values). To produce a digital signal (discrete time and discrete values), one both samples (discrete time) and quantizes the resulting sample values (discrete values).
« Last Edit: January 01, 1970, 04:00:00 AM by Guest »
 

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